A Simulationist's Framework for Business Analysis

R.P. Churchill

Lean Six Sigma Black Belt

Moschitta-Hawking Scale
30 Years of Simulation

Continuous simulation of the heating of a square billet and Discrete-Event simulation of a multi-phase process.
30 Years of Simulation


  • Paper (Chemical/Process)
  • Nuclear (Power Generation)
  • Metals (Steel, Non-Ferrous)
  • HVAC (Building Control)
  • Insurance, Banking, Legal
  • Security, Inspections
  • Passenger Processing
  • Medical Facilities
  • Evacuations
  • Area Control
  • Threat Response
  • Logistics, Supply
  • Maintenance and Reliability
  • Staff Level Determination
  • Fleet Management



  • Design and Sizing
  • Operations Research
  • Real-Time Control
  • Operator Training
  • Risk Analysis
  • Economic Analysis
  • Impact Analysis
  • Process Improvement (BPR)

Architectural Considerations

  • Continuous vs. Discrete-Event
  • Interactive vs. Fire-and-Forget
  • Real-Time vs. Non-Real-Time
  • Single-Platform vs. Distributed
  • Deterministic vs. Stochastic
The Framework:
  • Project Planning
  • Intended Use
  • Assumptions, Capabilities, and Risks and Impacts
  • Conceptual Model (As-Is State)
  • Data Sources
  • Requirements (To-Be State: Abstract)
    • Functional (What it Does)
    • Non-Functional (What it Is, plus Maintenance and Governance)
  • Design (To-Be State: Detailed)
  • Implementation
  • Test
    • Operation and Usability (Verification)
    • Outputs (Validation)
  • Acceptance (Accreditation)
BABOK Knowledge Areas vs. Bob's Framework
Bob's Technique Business Analysis Planning and Monitoring Elicitation and Collaboration Requirements Life Cycle Management Strategy Analysis Requirements Analysis and Design Definition Solution Evaluation Requirements per BABOK
Project Planning X x
Intended Use x X x x x Business Requirements
Assumptions, Capabilities, Limitations, and Risks & Impacts x X x
Conceptual Model
(As-Is State)
x X X
Data Sources x X
(To-Be State: Abstract)
x X X x X Stakeholder Requirements
(To-Be State: Concrete)
x x X X Solution Requirements
(Functional and Non-Functional)
Implementation x X x X x x Transition Requirements
Test Operation and Usability
x X
Test Outputs
x x X
x X
Project Planning

Sets up and kicks off the project using traditional project management techniques.

Considers intended management framework (Waterfall, Agile, Kanban, etc.) and special requirements for the effort (existing assets/PMO, identify stakeholders).

This step is bookended by a Project Closeout step at the end of the effort.

Intended Use

This defines the customer's goals for what the new or modified process or system will accomplish.

It may describe technical and performance outcomes but must ultimately be expressed in terms of business value.

Each goal can be described in terms of:

  • Key Questions - questions to be answered
  • Application - decisions to be made
  • Outputs and Data - specific outputs to be generated

This information is included in the Project Charter from the PMBOK.

Assumptions, Capabilities, and Risks & Impacts

Define the scope of the project and what capabilities and considerations will and will not be included.

Describe the risks inherent in the effort and the possible impacts of risk items occurring.

Reasons to omit features and capabilities:

  • Outside of natural or organizational boundaries
  • Insufficient data or understanding
  • Impact on results is small (benefit not worth cost)
  • Components aren't active in modes being investigated
Conceptual Model (As Is State)

If an existing process is to be modified, improved, or automated, discover all operations and data items. This defines the As Is State. (In simulation this is known as building a Conceptual Model.)

If there is not an existing process, work backwards from the desired outcomes to determine what operations and data are required.

Map out the discovered process and document and collect data and parameters for each operation and communication.

The conceptual model is not a specific type of drawing, but is a representation of an existing system using any appropriate techniques.

Iteratively review the maps, data, and descriptions with customers and SMEs until all parties agree that understanding is accurate and complete!

Data Sources

Refers to input items (nouns) processed, not parameters (adjectives) that describe the operation and characteristics of the system.

Map sources, sinks, and messages to Conceptual Model.

Data sources (or assumptions) must be found that support the generation of all required output data items. Trace backwards from desired outputs to required inputs and calculations.

Items must be validated for accuracy, authority, and obtainability.

Interfaces should be abstract initially (e.g., with management and through initial discovery and scoping), and then detailed in design and implementation with proper SMEs.

Ensure that data and flags, states, formats, and metadata are captured in sufficient detail. Work with implementation SMEs as needed.

Requirements (To-Be State: Abstract)


  • What the system DOES
  • Describes components, behaviors, entities, actions, inputs, and outputs.
  • Contains the details of the design the user sees and the mechanisms that generate results.


  • What the system IS
  • Describes qualities (in terms of "-ilities," e.g., reliability, modularity, flexibility, robustness, maintainability, scalability, usability, and so on).
  • Describes how the system is maintained and governed.
  • Describes how the system is hosted.

The requirements include the criteria by which functional and non-functional elements will be judged to be acceptable.

This represents the To-Be State in abstract terms.

All items in the requirements should map to items in the Conceptual Model in both directions. This mapping is contained in the Requirements Traceability Matrix (RTM), which can be implemented in many ways.

Design (To-Be State: Concrete)

The design of the system is a description of how the system will be implemented and what resources will be required.

The design of the system also includes plans for maintenance and governance going forward.

All elements of the design must map in both directions to all elements of the Conceptual Model and Requirements via the Requirements Traceability Matrix (RTM).

BAs may or may not participate in the design of the system directly, but must absolutely ensure that all elements are mapped to previous (and subsequent) elements via the RTM.


This phase is where the implementation is actually carried out, based on the design.

This involves project management methodologies and strategic decision-making for the transition process: prioritizing items for implementation (according to business value and architectural logic), bringing new capabilities online (including training), taking existing capabilities offline, and so on.

Waterfall, Agile, and other methodologies may be used as appropriate to the scope and scale of the effort.

All elements of the implementation must map in both directions to all elements of the Conceptual Model, Requirements, and Design via the Requirements Traceability Matrix (RTM).

Deployment is part of implementation.

Implementation (continued)

Hierarchy of Skills Required: (I'm just exploring this idea. How would you rank these?)

  • Understand the entire solution process (Intended Use through Acceptance)
  • Communication (Intended Use through Acceptance)
  • Understand the problem abstractly (Intended Use through Conceptual Model)
  • Solve the problem abstractly (Design through Test)
  • Organize and deploy the resources (Intended Use through Acceptance)
  • Understand implementation toolset (Implementation, Test)
    • Programming languages and tools
    • Data analysis and manipulation
    • Graphics, design
    • User interface

Don't Use the Tool Until You've Already Solved the Problem


Operation and Usability (Verification)

  • Tests to ensure the system operates as intended.
  • This process ensures that the system:
    • makes sense to the users
    • enables manipulation of all relevant elements
    • prevents and corrects errors
    • maintains users' situational awareness
    • includes documentation, training, and help
  • These types of tests are most able to be automated.

Outputs (Validation)

  • Tests to confirm the accuracy of the results produced.
  • For simulations ensures behavior matches real-world system for known cases
  • Validation of results may be:
    • Objective, e.g., measured comparisons to known values in a simulation or calculation
    • Subjective, e.g., judged as "correct" by SMEs for novel situations and realizations of business value
  • The outputs are what provide the business value of the solution.

Additional information about Verification and Validation here.

Test (continued)

All elements of the test plan and results must map in both directions to all previous elements in the Requirements Traceability Matrix (RTM).

Specialized test SMEs may conduct the majority of system testing, but implementors, managers, customers, maintainers, and end users should all be involved.

Provisions for testing, V&V, and quality should be built into the process from the beginning.

Acceptance (Accreditation)

This phase ensures that the customer's plans and criteria for acceptance are met. All of the stated acceptability criteria must be addressed.

This plan must include the process for handing the system or process over to the customer (internal or external). This process may include documentation, training, hardware, software, backups, licenses, and more.

The customer is the final judge of acceptance and may make three judgments:

  • Full Acceptance
  • Partial Acceptance with Limitations
  • Non-Acceptance
Clarification: Conceptual Model through Design

The Intended Use drives everything.

Discovery vs. Data Collection

Discovery is a qualitative process. It identifies nouns (things) and verbs (actions, transformations, decisions, calculations).

Data Collection is a quantitative process. It identifies adjectives (colors, dimensions, rates, times, volumes, capacities, materials, properties).

Discovery comes first, so you know what data you need to collect.

Imagine you're going to simulate or automate the process. What values do you need? This is the information the implementation teams will need.

Context of Discovery

Elicitation is discovering the customer's needs. Discovery is about mapping the customer's existing process.

If there is no existing process, i.e., a new (greenfield) process is being built from scratch, then a form of discovery will occur during Requirements and Design.

Process Mapping
  • Describes what comes in, where it goes, how it's transformed, and what comes out.
  • Describes the movement and storage of information, material, people, and other entities.
  • Maps define the scope of a process. Links to connected processes or "everything else" are called interfaces.
  • Are presented at the level of detail that makes sense.
  • Process elements within maps can themselves be processes with their own maps.
  • State, timing, and other data can be included.
  • Entities in a process can be split and combined.
  • Processes and entities may be continuous or discrete.
Process Mapping (continued)

Processes may be mapped differently based on needs, industry standards, and the information to be represented.

Mechanical Pulping Mill, Quebec City, QC
Offgas System in BWR Nuclear Power Plant, Richland, WA
Land Border Port of Entry, Columbus, NM
Architecture Study: General Purpose Discrete-Event Simulation
Process Mapping (continued)
  • S-I-P-O-C vs. C-O-P-I-S
  • Any number of inputs and outputs are possible.
Process Mapping (continued)

I give specific names to modular components.

Data Collection (Process Characterization)
  • Captures qualitative descriptions of entity types and characteristics, process types and characteristics, and decisions made.
  • Captures quantitative data:
    • physical dimensions, volumes, and storage capacities
    • arrival and departure rates and times
    • diversion percentages (what parts of outputs go where)
    • process durations
    • whatever is needed to describe transitions
    • counts or quantities of what's stored
    • velocities, frequencies, and fluxes
    • number of stations in each sub-process
Data Collection (Process Characterization) (continued)

    Data collection corresponds to the Observation technique in the BABOK. Methods include:

    • Walkthroughs: guided and unguided (Waste Walk)
    • Drawings, Documents, Manuals, Specifications
    • Electronic Collection (real-time vs. historical, integrated vs. external sensors)
    • Visual / In-Person (notes, logsheets, checklists, mobile apps)
    • Interviews (with SMEs)
    • Surveys
    • Video
    • Photos
    • Calculations
    • Documented Procedures and Policies
Domain Knowledge Acquisition
  • Domain knowledge is acquired from prior experience or training or from the process SMEs as you go.
  • What you need to know to:
    • capture process details
    • analyze the operations
    • perform calculations
    • make sure you don't miss anything
Requirements Traceability Matrix
  • Best represented by a relational data structure but any method will work.
  • Needs discovered later could require the creation of earlier elements.
  • Methodological requirements (at bottom) can each be thought of as a kind of non-functional requirement that doesn't need to be mapped.
Customer Feedback Cycle

Review every phase with the customer until they agree it's correct, especially for the Conceptual Model (As-Is State).

Needs discovered later could require the creation of earlier elements.

This framework is usable for both Waterfall and Scrum, and really for any management style.

Example Simulation

Simple pass-through simulation using basic component types.

Independent link

Project link

Scope and Scale of the Project/Simulation Effort

The process described includes the greatest amount of detail. All projects and efforts perform all of these steps implicitly, but some may be streamlined or omitted as the size of the effort scales down.

The entire process takes place implicitly or explicitly even if any one participant or group only sees a small fraction of the activity.

Context of the Project/Simulation Effort

Usually best for processes that have a defined beginning and end. Continuous discovery, data collection, redefinition of requirements, update of design, and reimplementation can be carried out for ongoing, reactive, support and maintenance operations.

Works in Waterfall, Agile, and other project management environments.

The framework does not inhibit the ability to explore and test multiple options.

Making Sure The Analysis Is Thorough


  • Consider all elements from all angles.
  • UML is a formal example. The BABOK is more diffuse.
  • Simulation is great for understanding because the results show if everything's included.
  • Formal mathematical proofs of correctness and optimality exist for some problems.
  • Customer review and realized results are the best proof for most BA engagements.
IVV&A Inspiration for the Framework

Tell 'em what you're gonna do. Do it. Tell 'em what you did.

Accreditation Plan V&V Plan V&V Report Accreditation Report
Executive Summary Executive Summary Executive Summary Executive Summary
1. Problem Statement 1. Problem Statement 1. Problem Statement 1. Problem Statement
2. M&S Requirements and Acceptability Criteria 2. M&S Requirements and Acceptability Criteria 2. M&S Requirements and Acceptability Criteria 2. M&S Requirements and Acceptability Criteria
3. M&S Assumptions, Capabilities, Limitations, and Risks & Impacts 3. M&S Assumptions, Capabilities, Limitations, and Risks & Impacts 3. M&S Assumptions, Capabilities, Limitations, and Risks & Impacts 3. M&S Assumptions, Capabilities, Limitations, and Risks & Impacts
4. Accreditation Methodology 4. V&V Methodology 4. V&V Task Analysis 4. Accreditation Assessment
5. Accreditation Issues 5. V&V Issues 5. V&V Recommendations 5. Accreditation Recommendations
6. Key Participants 6. Key Participants 6. Key Participants 6. Key Participants
7. Planned Accreditation Resources 7. Planned V&V Resources 7. Actual V&V Resources Expended 7. Actual Accreditation Resources Expended
8. V&V Lessons Learned 8. Accreditation Lessons Learned
Suggested Appendices Suggested Appendices Suggested Appendices Suggested Appendices
A. M&S Description A. M&S Description A. M&S Description A. M&S Description
B. M&S Requirements Traceability Matrix B. M&S Requirements Traceability Matrix B. M&S Requirements Traceability Matrix B. M&S Requirements Traceability Matrix
C. Basis of Comparison C. Basis of Comparison C. Basis of Comparison C. Basis of Comparison
D. References D. References D. References D. References
E. Acronyms E. Acronyms E. Acronyms E. Acronyms
F. Glossary F. Glossary F. Glossary F. Glossary
G. Accreditation Programmatics G. V&V Programmatics G. V&V Programmatics G. Accreditation Programmatics
H. Distribution List H. Distribution List H. Distribution List H. Distribution List
I. Accreditation Plan I. V&V Plan I. Accreditation Plan
J. Test Information J. V&V Report
Process Improvement
  • Incremental improvement vs. Quantum Leap (The Big Kill!)
  • Center to target and reduce variation (Six Sigma)
  • Rearrangement and Compression (Lean)
  • Substitution / Elimination / Automation
  • Modify a sub-process and see how it affects the whole system
  • Theory of Constraints: The Five Focusing Steps:
    • Identify the constraint
    • Exploit the constraint
    • Subordinate to the constraint
    • Elevate the constraint
    • If constraint is "broken" go back to step 1
Monte Carlo Analysis   "It was smooth sailing!" vs. "I hit every stinkin' red light today!"

Involves running multiple trials of complex models including combinations of numerous randomly generated outcomes that yield a range of complex results.

Models may incorporate scheduled and unscheduled elements.

  • Randomly generated outcomes may include:
    • event durations
    • process outcomes
    • routing choice
    • event occurrence (e.g., failure, arrival; Poisson function)
    • arrival characteristic (anything that affects outcomes)
    • resource availability
    • environmental conditions
  • Random values may be obtained by applying methods singly and in combination, which can result in symmetrical or asymmetrical results:
    • single- and multi-dice combinations
    • range-defined buckets
    • piecewise linear curve fits
    • statistical and empirical functions
    • rule-based conditioning of results
Examples of Data Driving Random Outcomes

Source Spreadsheet

Unified Theory of Business Analysis

R.P. Churchill

Lean Six Sigma Black Belt
Where Do the 50 BA Techniques Fit?
Where Do the Most Commonly Used Software Tools Fit?
Where Do the Most Commonly Used Non-Software Tools Fit?
Are You Only Engaged In Part of This Cycle?
Are You Thinking About Non-Functional or Functional Requirements?

What it IS or what it DOES?

That is, if everything isn't a process, what is your context?

Hint: Everything involves a process, even if it only involves the does-ness of identifying and creating an is-ness.

Organizations Exist To Provide Value!

Every activity in an organization must provide value directly or indirectly.

Every object in an organization must provide value directly or indirectly.

Business analysts are a contemporary embodiment of the problem-solving, value-creating aspects of organizations, but there's a lot of overlap with other roles.

Tomorrow the role may be called something different. The Wikipedia page for seemingly every management idea has a section for criticisms.

There Are No Silver Bullets Or Final Answers

Facts and Fallacies of Software Engineering describes 50 years of incremental advance.

This presentation and other information can be found at my website:


E-mail: bob@rpchurchill.com

LinkedIn: linkedin.com/in/robertpchurchill